An online exhibit by the King County Archives, November, 2014. Special thanks to our hard-working interns and volunteers, Jacqueline McCauley for research, writing, scanning, and design; and Mason Thaut and Jesse Stanley for scanning and html editing.
Table of Contents
Mud Mountain Dam
THE INTER-COUNTY RIVER IMPROVEMENT COMMISSION AND THE WHITE RIVER, 1913-1948
|(Exhibit banner image: portion of map of improvement area around Puyallup and Sumner. Above: map identifying improvements in the same area. Both from 1919 Engineer's monthly reports.) Click for larger image.|
1902 Auditor report finding no use of explosives by King County government on the Stuck River between the years 1888 and 1902. Series 1735. Click on link to view report.
Representatives of King and Pierce counties did make some efforts to address the issue cooperatively, but it wasn't until 1906, when flooding along the White and Puyallup rivers caused over one million dollars in damage, that public agencies took action. The flood had washed away several railway bridges, destroyed farmland, and disrupted logging operations, and, most significantly, it had diverted the waters of the White River into the bed of the Stuck, creating an opportunity to permanently reengineer the river flows.
A commission headed by Major Hiram M. Chittenden of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was charged with surveying the watersheds and recommending a solution to flooding in the Puyallup and White-Duwamish valleys. The resulting 1907 report (The Duwamish-Puyallup Flood Problem) recommended (1) that engineers retain the route of the 1906 southerly diversion of the White River and (2) that a formalized joint flood control effort be established between King and Pierce counties. At the time, there was no legal mechanism by which two counties in Washington State could contract with one another. Then, in 1913 the Washington State Legislature enacted new legislation (“Flood Control by Counties Jointly,” RCW 86.13), which permitted interlocal agreements under which counties could cooperate on and jointly fund flood control projects on shared rivers.
The next year, King and Pierce county commissioners signed a ninety-nine year agreement pledging cooperation to control flooding along an approximately nineteen-mile stretch of the White and Puyallup rivers, running from the Muckleshoot Indian Reservation, through Auburn to Algona-Pacific, and into Pierce County. The agreement created the Inter-County River Improvement Commission (ICRIC) headed by the Joint Board of Commissioners, consisting of the county commissioners of King and Pierce counties and a seventh, independent commissioner.
|(Above: "Group from Auburn Inspecting Diversion Dam and Channel Change, Oct. 24, 1921." 1922 Annual Report (Box 6, Folder 4). Series 1735.)|
The first significant projects of the ICRI were the Auburn Dam, which permanently diverted the White River into the Stuck River channel, and a debris barrier along the Muckleshoot Reservation. Other early efforts focused on dredging and river bank erosion control.
Flooding in 1933 destroyed or damaged much of the work done by the ICRIC, and in the midst of the Great Depression, the ICRIC did not have the means to make effective repairs. The Joint Board of Commissioners petitioned the federal government for aid and began a partnership with the Works Progress Administration (WPA)/Flood Relief Program.
|(Above: "Auburn Section White River August 1938." R. H. Thomson inspecting a revetment. Engineering monthly report, May-June 1939 (Box 5, Folder 10). Series 1735.)|
Over time, most of the functions of the ICRIC were taken over by other county, state and federal agencies in the respective counties, although the ICRIC continued its maintenance of existing flood control structures along the White River.
The ICRIC had focused exclusively on flood control. The techniques employed — straightening river channels, debris removal, construction of hydraulic structures, and dredging — compromised the spawning habitat of salmon and trout that the river supported. But environmental impacts were only addressed by fisheries’ stakeholders and public agencies in the latter part of the twentieth century.
By controlling the White River, the work of the ICRIC in turn permitted development of the valley, first as farmland and into what is now mostly residential and commercial use. The subsequent population growth had additional impacts on the White River watershed. Pollution is one result of a growing population, and increased use of the land makes policy and engineering changes more difficult to implement.
Flood control and fisheries enhancement continue today with the participation of a wide range of stakeholders under the state’s Water Resources Inventory Area (WRIA) program and other cooperative structures. New scientific knowledge and new perspectives have resulted in a new generation of river improvements. Today, King County's Water and Land Resources Division oversees flood management and salmon habitat restoration. The goal of its Lower White River Countyline Reach projects is "to reconnect more than 120 acres of floodplain to the White River channel" to address recent flooding while restoring "riverine processes and functions to the lower White River and its floodplain in order to enhance salmonid rearing habitat, in particular for spring and fall Chinook, coho, and steelhead."
When the Inter-County River Improvement Commission began its work in 1914, engineers divided the length of the White-Puyallup river system under their jurisdiction into eight working sections. Three of the sections were in King County (Muckleshoot, Auburn and County Line) and five (Dieringer, Roesli, Puyallup, Murphy, and Reservation) were in Pierce County.
This exhibit highlights the King County sections; however, Commission text records and photographs for all sections are present in the holdings of the King County Archives. King County's partner, Pierce County, has custody of records and photographs from the same series documenting Pierce County's participation in the ICRIC.
Above: photo from 1922 ICRIC annual report.)
The Muckleshoot river section lay the farthest upstream. Debris and gravel, carried by glacial meltwater, washed downstream and contributed to flooding in the lower rivers. In 1915, the ICRIC constructed a drift barrier in the Muckleshoot Section by placing across the river a line of 330-ton, pyramid-shaped rocks connected by rows of two inch cables. Logs and other debris caught in the barrier would be hauled out of the river, piled up, and burned. Levees were also constructed in this section. These efforts had some effect on flood control. However, the White River also served as a spawning habitat for chinook, pink, chum, and coho salmon, and rainbow, steelhead, and cutthroat trout. The work of the ICRIC had an adverse impact on the White River watershed’s ability to support wild salmon. The hydraulic techniques employed by the ICRIC --channelization, removal of large woody debris-- contributed to a loss of usable spawning grounds, making it difficult for the salmon population to thrive. They also cut off access to side streams and marshes that had served as additional spawning sites.
The Inter-County River Improvement Commission was charged with improving flood control in the lower river system. The ICRIC records do not show that maintenance of fish stocks was a concern at this time.
|Photo from 1922 ICRI annual report. "Jan. 17, 1921. Drift clearing with gasoline donkey engine at drift barrier."|
The Muckleshoot Section of the White River traversed the Muckleshoot Indian Reservation, established by the Treaties of Medicine Creek and Point Elliott in 1854. As a result of intense activism and litigation by western Washington tribes in the mid-twentieth century, the Muckleshoot Tribe was able to reclaim rights to White River fisheries promised by the treaties. Since the restoration of treaty rights, the Muckleshoot tribe has been a stakeholder in the management of the lower White and Puyallup river systems and the fisheries they support. This has at times set the tribe in opposition to flood control efforts in the Muckleshoot section. In the 1970's and 1980's the tribe, citing its treaty and sovereign rights, denied ICRIC access to flood control levees that had been built in the reservation areas of the White River. As a consequence of subsequent natural breaching of the levees, fish habitat and spawning gravels were undeniably improved.
Balancing the interests of fishing, species protection, and habitat restoration, and flood control on the White and Puyallup River systems remains a challenge.
|Muckleshoot section, photo from 1923 annual report.|
|Photo from 1932 annual report. "Muckleshoot section: High Gravel Cliff on Right Bank. The source of a great quantity of gravel and silt precipitated thruout the Auburn Section the past years. The pole bulkhead at base of cliff constructed during low water period of 1932.")|
The Auburn Section was the focus of much of the ICRIC's work, since it was here that the 1906 flood had altered the course of the White River.
|Auburn section during December 1921 flood. From 1922 annual report.|
The diversion wall at Auburn's Game Farm Park today. Image courtesy of King County, White River Watershed facts.
|"Opposite from Camp 2," from 1922 annual report.|
|"Showing destructive result of 1917 flood, in which 3600 feet of levees and revetment were eroded," from 1931 annual report.|
|"Bulkhead #4 completed and brushed, showing channel diverted from east bank," from 1925 annual report.|
In 1924, the ICRIC constructed two bulkheads and two new retards and strengthened three older retards in an attempt to protect the banks from erosion that contributed to the build-up of silt and debris. Though engineering staff had thought that this effort would permanently solve the problems in County Line section, in 1939 a new system of groins and dikes had to be installed. It was designed to allow normal flow or moderate flooding to pass through the natural river channel, while diverting heavy floodwaters through the dikes, where gravel and debris would be trapped while the water was returned to the channel downstream.
|Photographs from 1923 annual report showing flooding damage in spite of ICRIC efforts. Above: "Tony Roetger's place protected with retards," November 23, 1923.|
|"Tony Roetger's place showing erosion between retards due to high water of December, 1923."|
Most ICRIC work in this section involved dredging. The ICRIC's steam donkey and Fordson equipment were put to constant use in this area pulling tens of thousands of cubic meters of gravel and silt from the river bed. This technique did not prove sustainable as periodic flooding along the White River would fill in more gravel and debris.While this brought some relief over the years, a flood in 1946 destroyed the system of dikes and brought large amounts of gravel and debris into the County Line Section. With the ICRIC already becoming less active, work on the County Line Section was mostly abandoned. Sediment still tends to deposit in this reach of the river, causing the river bed to rise and for the cities of Pacific and Sumner to experience recent flooding. The primary flood risk reduction strategy for this reach is to increase the river’s capacity to accommodate flood flows and high sediment loads. Since 2008, King County’s Water and Land Resource Division has been working to acquire land and modify old levees and revetments, so the river is reconnected to its floodplain. This approach increases flood conveyance and storage, while opening up areas to accommodate sediment deposition.
Map 1 from 1931 annual report.
ICRIC engineers had well understood that only a dam upriver could adequately control water levels in the lower river system. After many surveys and studies, which included the taking of core samples at the proposed dam site, the ICRIC Joint Board of Commissioners approved the project and applied to the federal Public Works Administration in October, 1933. Receiving no response, the Joint Board sent its chief engineer, B.P. Thomas to Washington, D.C., where he was able to persuade the US Army Corps of Engineers to review the application.
Despite support of senior Corps personnel in the Pacific Northwest, Congressional letter-writing campaigns by the King County Commissioners, and personal lobbying in Washington DC by respected engineer R. H. Thomson, the Corps initially refused to send the application on for Congressional action: the location selected for the dam was well above the floodplain over which the ICRIC had jurisdiction. After an ICRIC attempt to get the project added to an existing WPA contract, the Corps refused again, partly on the grounds that the ICRIC did not own the proposed site.
|(Above: The White River at the location where the Mud Mountain Dam would be built, from King County Assessor's Timber Cruise Reports. King County Archives Series 1067.)|
Attempts to purchase property from the chief landholders, the Weyerhaeuser Timber Company and the White River Lumber Company, were unsuccessful and in September 1935 the Joint Board authorized Pierce and King Counties to begin condemnation proceedings.
With Congressional approval, the ICRIC raised most of the funds for dam construction and would later transfer ownership of the site to the federal government.
(Above: Plan for Mud Mountain Dam, circa 1933.)
Although it was not officially an ICRIC project, the 432-foot high Mud Mountain Dam, once the highest earth-fill dam in the world, remains the most enduring legacy of the early years of the ICRIC.Although now a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers site, the dam might never have come into being without persistent advocacy for its construction by the Inter-County River Improvement Commission.
As with other flood control structures on the White River, the Mud Mountain Dam has had negative impacts on the health of salmonid stocks. The dam traps gravel, sediments and woody debris, which are then cleared, depriving the lower river of materials needed for spawning habitat. And, because the dam blocks upstream passage, the Corps to this day employs a technique called “trap-and-haul,” using trucks to carry returning salmon around the dam each spawning season.
"Item 23. Bulkhead at confluence of Stuck and Puyallup Rivers, looking up stream, showing placing of Brush, July 23rd." (Box 6, Folder 6).
Many bulkheads such as the one in the above photograph were built by the Inter-County River Improvement Commission for bank protection by driving piles into the bank and then filling the built structure with loose brush. This approach had been a common practice before the ICRIC began its work, and several miles of bulkheads were already in place by 1914. However, despite Gronen's glowing report, later Chief Engineers mostly abandoned the use of these structures as they provided inadequate bank protection, created a fire hazard in dry weather, and generally had a short lifespan.
"The work at the Drift Barrier, Item 5, consisted in the removal, piling and burning of many hundred cords of drift which had lodged immediately above the barrier, thereby providing an effective opening clear of drift approximately 600 feet wide, part of the lower cables having been removed to allow some of the earlier and smaller drift to find its way through the barrier." -- H.F. Gronen, Chief Engineer, Annual Report 1923
Fordson tractors were produced by Henry Ford & Son, Inc. from 1917 to 1920, and later by the Ford Motor Company. They were the first mass-produced tractors in the world and they became the best selling tractor in the United States during this period. The logging industry used them extensively by converting them to run on rails. In the photographs "Item 5" and "Item 10" below, it is apparent that they were converted to other purposes as well. ICRIC laborers employ the engine of a Fordson tractor to power a winch (below left), while in the center photo, the same engine is being used to power a pile driver.
"Eight hundred and fifty feet of wooden pile bulkhead was driven and brushed, and between 30,000 and 40,000 yards of gravel removed from the main channel location using the large steam donkey equipt for fuel oil burning, with a 2 1/2 yard Bagley scraper, all in accordance with the general plan for channel control submitted byMr.Thomson and myself and approved by the Joint Board on July 10, 1925...This work is quite well illustrated in the series of pictures accompanying this report and we believe that sufficient progress has been made to give us a demonstration of the efficacy of the plan adopted. The large donkey is continuing to operate at the present time and will do so during the year unless prevented by high water, and we believe that with the appropriation provided quite an appreciable showing should be made toward the permanent control of this section." -- H.F. Gronen, Chief Engineer, Annual Report 1925
"Item 5. June, 1923. Fordson, Hicks-Bull logging equipment used in river clearing. Muckleshoot section." (Box 6, Folder 5)
"Item 10. September 1923. Dieringer Section. Mellen's place Method of jetting concrete piles, Fordson logging unit converted into pile driver." (Box 6, Folder 5).
A steam donkey, or donkey engine, was a widely used piece of logging equipment in the early 20th century. These engines were originally developed by the maritime industry for loading and unloading cargo. They became popular in both the logging and mining industries as they were adaptable and relatively easy to transport. In logging they were used to pull logs across the forest floor, a task previously performed by horses. Steam donkeys were usually mounted on wooden skids or sometimes wheels to make them easier to transport from site to site. The steam donkey employed by the ICRIC was adapted to other uses like removing gravel, as described in the passage below.
|"The placing of concrete to make a revement, August 1925." (Box 6, Folder 5).|
|"Flood Conditions Dec. 1921 Berg's Farm." (Box 6, Folder 4)||"Item 9. January 18th, 1923. County Line Section. Erosion of bank. Tony Roetger's place." (Box 6, Folder 5).|
|Item 10. July 1923. "Method of placing reinforcement and core in hollow concrete piles made at Camp--2." (Box 6, Folder 5).||"Item 10. July, 1923. Forms for reinforced concrete piles. Camp-2." (Box 6, Folder 5).|
|"Item 13. August, 1923. Just below highway bridge at Sumner before bank was protected." (Box 6, Folder 5).||"Item 13. December, 1923. Same location as before after bank was protected with standard Type 4 Revetment." (Box 6, Folder 5).|
|Item 10. Roesli Section, above Nix bulkhead showing bulkheads driven and brushed. December, 1926." (Box 6, Folder 8).||"Roesli Section. Old Type 5 revement badly undermined, above No. Puyallup Bridge, Dec. 10, 1927." (Box 6, Folder 9).|
|"Dieringer Section. Bulkhead; Right bank below Stewart bridge." (Box 6, Folder 10).||"Auburn Section. Item 7. Brushed pile bulkheads and gravel fill on right bank below old wing wall." (Box 6. Folder 11).|
|"Murphy Section. Left bank at Statrion 200 looking downstream. March 26, 1930. (Box 6, Folder 12).||"Remnant of bulkhead driven previous to 1914, located downstream from C.M. St. P. & P.S. R. R. Bridge. Repaired and brushed during December 1931." (Box 7, Folder 2).|
|"Clark's Creek Bridge over Puyallup River during construction." (Box 7, Folder 2).||"Just below Clark's Creek Bridge July 1, '39 showing rock dumped on concrete and before placing into groins." (Box 5, Folder 10).|
|"Constructing levee. South side, Station 60." (Box 3, Folder 1).||"Detail of pole retard, Station 120, North side." (Box 3, Folder 1).|
|"#2367 Stewart Bridge, 1/6/23." (Box 5, Folder 1).|
"Douglas Fir - 25'8" circumference located on the former White River Channel Floor at a point about a quarter mile up stream from the Drift Barrier and approximately 300 feet west of the present channel. This Fir Tree is conclusive evidence of the time that has elapsed since the occurrence of floods of sufficient magnitude to destroy any standing timber in the river canyon." (Box 7, Folder 3).
|"River clearing. Muckleshoot Section." (Box 3, Folder 1).||"Green timber eroded causing serious diversion." (Box 7, Folder 3).|
|"Item 23. Bulkhead at confluence of Stuck and Puyallup Rivers, looking up stream, showing placing of Brush, July 23rd." (Box 6, Folder 6).||"Item 5. June, 1923. Fordson, Hicks-Bull logging equipment used in river clearing. Muckleshoot section." (Box 6, Folder 5).|
"Ditto. Steam Donkey equipt for burning fuel oil, used with 2 1/2 yd. Bagley for removal of gravel. Nov. 15, 1925." (Box 6, Folder 7).
"Item 10. September 1923. Dieringer Section. Mellen's place Method of jetting concrete piles, Fordson logging unit converted into pile driver." (Box 6, Folder 5).
|"The placing of concrete to make a revetment, August 1925." (Box 6, Folder 5).||"Item 14 [Curve above bridge at Sumner] showing completed type 7 revetment, Dec. 9th." (Box 6, Folder 6).|
"Group from Auburn Inspecting Diversion Dam and Channel Change, Oct. 24, 1921." (Box 6, Folder 4).
|"Muckleshoot section, photo from 1923 annual report." (Box 5, Folder 1).||"Auburn Section White River August 1938." R. H. Thomson inspecting a revetment." (Box 5, Folder 10).|
|"Photo from 1922 ICRI annual report." (Box 6, Folder 2).||"Muckleshoot Section, timber crib barrier to divert channel." (Box 3, Folder 1).|
|"Same as above after high water." (Box 3, Folder 1).||"Detail of timber crib barrier." (Box 3, Folder 1).|
|"Muckleshoot section: High Gravel Cliff on Right Bank." (Box 7, Folder 3).|
|"Jan. 17, 1921. Drift clearing with gasoline donkey engine at drift barrier." (Box 6, Folder 2).||"Auburn dam, 1921." (Box 6, Folder 2).|
|"Brush retards on right bank below Auburn Dam." (Box 6, Folder 1).||"Auburn section during December 1921 flood." (Box 6, Folder 2).|
|"Right bank below Auburn Diversion Dam, showing erosion, November 1931." (Box 7, Folder 2).||"Accumulated drift carried down out of Muckleshoot section below drift barrier." (Box 7, Folder 2).|
|Pile retards, adjacent to Wing Wall no. 1, being brushed November 1932." (Box 7, Folder 2).||"The diversion wall at Auburn's Game Farm Park today." (Image courtesy of King County, White River Watershed facts).|
|"Opposite from Camp 2," (Box 6, Folder 2).||"Showing destructive result of 1917 flood, in which 3570 feet of levees and revetment were eroded." (Box 7, Folder 2).|
|"Bulkhead #4 completed and brushed, showing channel diverted from east bank." (Box 6, Folder 5).||"Tony Roetger's place protected with retards." (Box 6, Folder 5).|
|"Tony Roetger's place showing erosion between retards due to high water of December, 1923." (Box 6, Folder 5).||"Looking up stream showing completed levee and revement, also formation of sedimentary islands." (Box 7, Folder 2).|
"Same section during flood which caused destruction to lower 3570 feet." (Box 7, Folder 2).
1995 Flood monitoring, showing Mud Mountain Dam and reservoir behind dam. (Photos from King County Archives Series 400).>
>"Map of improvement area around Puyallup and Sumner." (Box 1, Folder 4).
"Same as the map above but with depictions of bulkhead and revement placement." (Box 1, Folder 4).
"A Map of the proposed levee project to prevent a flood like the one in 1917." (Box 7, Folder 1).
"The White River at the location where the Mud Mountain Dam would be built." (Series 1067).
"Plan for Mud Mountain Dam, circa 1933."
"Mud Mountain Reservoir Vicinity Map with surrounding rivers." (Box 1, Folder 12).
A "Township map of Stuck, White, and Green River circa. 1908 before the river improvement."(Series 1067).
"Blueprint of the river revetments for the ICRIC Project." (Box 1, Folder 1).
"Improved channel blueprints and their proposed specifications." (Box 1, Folder 1).
"Cross section blueprint of where the Stuck and Puyallup Rivers meet." (Box 7, Folder 2).
"Cross section blueprint of the Stuck River 800' feet upstream from the N.P.R.R Bridge." (Box 7, Folder 2).
"Cross Section of the Puyallup River at Station 10-00." (Box 7, Folder 2).
1902 Auditor report finding no use of explosives by King County government on the Stuck River between the years 1888 and 1902. (Series 1735.)
Additional Document Links
- 1902 surveyor report cooperation to address White River flooding before ICRIC Project. May 5, 1902
- 1912 Engineer's Field Survey Book explaining how the diversion of the rivers created a wildlife reserve.
- The ICRIC Joint Board of Commissioners approval of the White River Dam in October, 1933. June 6, 1933
- Congressional letter-writing campaigns by the King County Commissioners. January 22, 1934
- The Weyerhaeuser Timber Company's attempt to buy ICRIC Project land. September 17, 1935
- Article announcing the awarding of a dredging contract for the Inter-County River Improvement Commission to Cross & Rollins of Seattle. September 10, 1914 (Box 1, Folder 11)
- Article describing the efforts by W.H. Paulhamus, a prominent citizen of Puyallup, to make the improvements by the Inter-County River Improvement Commission permanent. February 25, 1915. (Box 1, Folder 11)
- Article outlining the contention of Pierce County Commissioner C.H. Williams that an independent commission should be established to supervise the Inter-County River Improvement Commission. February 26, 1915. (Box 1, Folder 11)
- Article describing ongoing work of the Inter-County River Improvement Commission, specifically the drift barrier, Auburn Wall, and wing dams. March 5, 1915. (Box 1, Folder 11)
- Special Report 1914 compiled by Charles Evan Fowler regarding the Auburn Dam, the drift barrier, and dredging along the river. August 25, 1914. (Box 1, Folder 4)
Annual Engineering Reports:
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1920. (Box 6, Folder 2)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1923. (Box 6, Folder 5)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1924. (Box 6, Folder 6)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1925. (Box 6, Folder 7)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1926. (Box 6, Folder 8)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1927. (Box 6, Folder 9)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1928. (Box 6, Folder 10)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1929. (Box 6, Folder 11)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1930. (Box 6, Folder 12)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1931. (Box 7, Folder 2)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1932. (Box 7, Folder 3)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1935. (Box 7, Folder 4)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1936. (Box 7, Folder 5)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1937. (Box 7, Folder 6)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1938. (Box 7, Folder 7)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1939. (Box 7, Folder 8)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1941. (Box 7, Folder 9)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1942. (Box 7, Folder 10)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1943. (Box 7, Folder 11)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1944. (Box 7, Folder 12)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1945. (Box 7, Folder 13)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1946. (Box 7, Folder 14)
- Chief Engineer's Supplemental Annual Report for the Year 1946. (Box 7, Folder 14)
- Chief Engineer's Annual Report for the Year 1949. (Box 7, Folder 15)
A structure built to prevent erosion, mostly commonly along coastlines. They are generally constructed using wood pilings or stone.
A type of excavation conducted on the floor of bodies of water to deepen them and make them navigable. In the case of the ICRIC, this technique was utilized to increase channel capacity and reduce the risk of flooding.
A type of embankment dam made of compacted soil or sand with an impermeable material such as clay or concrete at its core.
A facility where fish are bred under artificial conditions, primarily for commercial or conservation purposes.
Fordson tractors were produced by Henry Ford & Son, Inc. from 1917 to 1920, and later by the Ford Motor Company. They were the first mass- produced tractors in the world which made them extremely affordable and they became the best selling tractor in the United States during this period. They were often converted to perform various tasks.
A measurement of the steepness of a line, calculated as the change in elevation, divided by the distance covered. Also called slope.
A wall built to limit water flow and the movement of sediment, generally made of wood, concrete, or rock. Also called a spur dike or wing dike when used in a river. In the records of the ICRIC, the spelling used is "groin."
A device used in constructing the foundation of large structures, typically made of wood, reinforced concrete, or steel. They are driven into the ground and connected using a pile cap, forming a solid base upon which to built.
A structure designed to impede or slow down the progress of the water's movement.
A revetment is a man-made sloped bank which absorbs the impact of moving water and is used primarily to prevent erosion. They can be made of concrete, wood, or rock.
Steam donkey/donkey engine
A steam donkey, or donkey engine, was a widely used piece of logging equipment in the early 20th century. These engines were originally developed in the maritime industry for loading and unloading cargo. They became popular in both the logging and mining industries as they were relatively easy to transport and adaptable. Steam donkeys were usually mounted on wooden skids or sometimes wheels to make them easier to transport from site to site.
- "2012 State of Our Watersheds Report: Green-Duwamish River, White-Puyallup River, and Lake Washington Basins," Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission: http://files.nwifc.org/sow/10%20Muckleshoot%20Indian%20Tribe%20intro.pdf and http://files.nwifc.org/sow/10%20Muckleshoot%20Indian%20Tribe.pdf
- "Salmon Habitat Limiting Factors Report for the Puyallup River Basin," John Kerwin, Washington Conservation Commission: https://aqua.kingcounty.gov/dnrp/library/archive-documents/wlr/wrias/10/salmon-habitat-limiting-factors/pdf/wria-10-salmon- habitat-limiting-factors.pdf
- "White River Watershed facts," King County: http://www.kingcounty.gov/environment/watersheds/white -river/facts.aspx
- "Hatcheries," Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife: http://wdfw.wa.gov/hatcheries/overview.html
- Major Chittenden's 1907 report is available through the University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
- "Chapter 86.13 RCW: Flood Control by Counties Jointly," Washington State Legislature: http://apps.leg.wa.gov/rcw/default.aspx?cite=86.13
- "River and Floodplain Management Section," King County Water and Land Resources Division: http://www.kingcounty.gov/environment/wlr/sections-programs/river-floodplain-section.aspx
- "Mud Mountain Dam," US Army Corps of Engineers: http://www.nws.usace.army.mil/Missions/CivilWorks/LocksandDams/MudMountainDam.aspx
- "Treaty of Medicine Creek," HistoryLink: http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&File_Id=5253
- "Treaty of Point Elliot," HistoryLink: http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=2629
- "Boldt Decision," Center for Columbia River History: http://www.ccrh.org/comm/river/legal/boldt.htm
- "Muckleshoot Indian Tribe vs. Trans-Canada Enterprises, Ltd.," Public.Resource.org: https://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/713/713.F2d.455.82 -3439.html
- "History of the Muckleshoot Indian Tribe and its Reservation," Muckleshoot Indian Tribe: http://www.muckleshoot.nsn.us/about -us/overview.aspx
- "The Fish-In Protests at Franks Landing," Gabriel Chrisman, Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project: http://depts.washington.edu/civilr/fish -ins.htm