For King County health care providers
Did you know that healthcare providers can receive federally-funded vaccines for low-income and uninsured children at no cost? Visit the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program for more information.
Incomplete immunization records
Titers can be used to test serologic immunity when no vaccination records are available and the patient/parent is vaccine hesitant. However, revaccination is almost always the best first approach. Repeating vaccinations is safe and acceptable and prevents the time and resources involved with obtaining and interpreting serologic tests. Your clinic may already have a standard protocol in place for titers. Consult this helpful table:
|MMR||Can get titer if status is unknown. IgG may be difficult to interpret if exposed. When deciding whether or not to use a titer and when interpreting results, consider recent exposure to disease.|
|Hep A||Can get titer.|
|Hep B||YES! Use reference.|
|Polio||Can get titer. Patients need protective level titers for ALL three types of polio. If titers show protection for only one or two types, the patient should be revaccinated.|
|DTaP||Can get titer if > 3 doses given, or give a dose and get a titer. There is no titer for pertussis.|
Not all titers are sufficiently sensitive or standardized for detection of vaccine-induced immunity (with the exception of hepatitis B vaccination at one to two months after the final dose). Additionally, laboratory testing might not be readily available.
Yes, but only if they can be done one to two months after the final dose of vaccine has been given. If the patient is HBsAg positive, infection is present. If the patient is Anti-HepBSAb positive, s/he is immune. Read more about Hep B testing and vaccination and refer to this table for additional guidance.
Administering vaccines off-schedule
For adults ages 27 through 45 years, clinicians can consider discussing HPV vaccination with people who are most likely to benefit. HPV vaccination does not need to be discussed with most adults over age 26 years. Learn more about HPV vaccine recommendations here and see ACIP's shared clinical decision-making FAQs.
Administering vaccines to a different age or population group than indicated on the label is at the provider's discretion. One should consider the risks and benefits along with other treatments for a patient's condition or situation. If the patient presents with particular symptoms or concerns, you may want to consult with a specialist and make a plan with the patient prior to vaccination.
In certain situations, vaccines may be recommended off-label. For example, Hib is typically a vaccine for very young children, but may be recommended for adults with specific medical conditions.
Yes, DTaP counts for a catch-up schedule. It may also count for the adolescent Tdap. Alternatively, the child can receive a Tdap booster at age 11 or 12.Consult the DTaP catch-up guide for more information.
If the wound is dirty and it's been more than five years since the last Td/Tdap dose, give a booster.
If the wound is clean and it's been more than 10 years since the last Td/Tdap dose, give a booster. Consult the table below for more information.
|Vaccination history||Clean, minor wounds||All other wounds|
|Unknown or fewer than 3 doses||Yes||No||Yes||Yes|
|3 or more doses||No*||No||No**||No|
*Yes, if more than 10 years since the last tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine dose.
**Yes, if more than 5 years since the last tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine dose.
In the table above, you can see that both Td and TIG are needed for a person who has:
- A wound that is neither clean nor minor.
- An unknown vaccination history or a history of fewer than 3 doses of a tetanus-containing vaccine.
Wounds that are other than clean and minor might include, but are not limited to:
- Wounds contaminated with dirt, feces, soil, and saliva
- Puncture wounds.
- Wounds resulting from missiles, crushing, burns, and frostbite.
If the person is 11 years of age or older, Tdap can be given for 1 of the doses, preferably the first dose. TIG provides temporary passive immunity by directly providing antitoxin (antibody) to eliminate the disease-producing toxins produced by C. tetani. The antitoxin provides protection before the body produces its own antitoxins (antibodies) in response to Td or Tdap vaccine.
Treat vaccine errors like a medical error or near miss.
- Notify and assess the patient/family
- Review corrections needed.
- Determine cause, factors, influences, and defects in process
- Follow your institution's policies for reporting errors
- Report to VERP (the Vaccine Errors Reporting Program)
- Report to VAERS (the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System) as needed
- Put steps in place to avoid repetition of errors, including retraining of staff
For more specific guidance, consult this guide on Vaccination Errors and How to Prevent Them.
- CDC/ACIP Recommended Immunization Schedules:
- Administering Vaccines: Dose, Route, Site, and Needle Size
- Interpreting immunization records from other countries
- Foreign language terms and vaccine brand names (Appendix B of the CDC Pink Book)
- Quick chart of vaccine-preventable disease terms in 16 European languages
- Addressing vaccine hesitancy
How many vaccine storage errors can you find?
- There Never Was An Age of Reason - Vaccines, Vaccine Hesitancy, and Vaccine Decision Making
Presented by: Dr. Edgar K. Marcuse, MD, MPH, FPIDS Emeritus Professor, Pediatrics University of Washington
What impact does vaccine hesitancy have on vaccine-preventable diseases? How do parents make decisions about vaccines? What role do health care providers play in getting parents to vaccinate? Register today to hear about the history, origins, current status, and impact of vaccine hesitancy on our vaccination rates and outbreaks of disease across Washington state and beyond.
- You Are the Key to HPV Cancer Prevention
Produced by WithinReach and Cardea through funding provided by the Washington State Department of Health, this free course provides the most up-to-date information on HPV infection, related disease and cancers, vaccine recommendations, safety and impact, and evidence-based suggestions for successful HPV vaccine communication with patients and parents. Upon successful completion of this CE activity, 1 contact hour (including 1 hour pharmacology credit) will be awarded. Learn more about this training.
Keep an eye out for future sessions of Dr. Paul Offit’s popular six week Coursera course on vaccines.The course, administered through the University of Pennsylvania, covers the following topics: a history of vaccines, schedules and common questions, vaccines and the media, case studies, exemptions, recently licensed vaccines, and disease outbreaks. The course is free and learners can earn a verified certificate statement of accomplishment. Add the course to your watch list.
- Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Vaccine webinar
Register for Dr. Paul Offit's "Current Issues in Vaccines" webinar series and view archived presentations. Each 40-45 minute webinar presents topics being addressed by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), covered by the media, or asked by parents. Archived topics include: the serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, the 9-valent HPV vaccine and the measles epidemic. Continuing education credits (CME, CEU, or CPE) can be obtained after viewing the archived events.
- Recommended childhood, adolescent and adult immunization schedules:
- Washington state preschool/child care and school requirements
- Immunization requirements for other states
- Cochlear implants
- Dialysis/chronic kidney disease
- Gay and bisexual men
- Healthcare personnel
- Hepatitis C infection
- HIV/AIDS infection
- Long-term care
- Pregnant women
- Rabies exposure assessment and vaccination
- Transplant recipients
The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is a national vaccine safety surveillance program co-sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). VAERS collects and analyzes information from reports of adverse events following immunization. VAERS encourages the reporting of any clinically significant adverse event that occurs after the administration of any vaccine licensed in the United States. You should report clinically significant adverse events even if you are unsure whether a vaccine caused the event.
The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) requires health care providers to report:
- Any event listed by the vaccine manufacturer as a contraindication to subsequent doses of the vaccine.
- Any event listed in the Reportable Events Table that occurs within the specified time period after vaccination.
A copy of the Reportable Events Table can be obtained by calling VAERS at 1-800-822-7967 or by downloading online.
Who can report to VAERS?
Anyone can report to VAERS. The majority of VAERS reports are sent in by vaccine manufacturers (42%) and health care providers (30%). The remaining reports are obtained from state immunization programs (12%), vaccine recipients (or their parent/guardians, 7%) and other sources (9%). Vaccine recipients or their parents or guardians are encouraged to seek the help of their health care professional in filling out the VAERS form.
How do I report to VAERS?
You can report by mail, fax or online. You can access the online reporting portal via the link above. If reporting by mail, you can obtain pre-addressed postage paid report forms by calling VAERS at 1-800-822-7967. You may use photocopies of the form to submit reports by mail or fax. You may also download printable copies of the VAERS form as well as other information about the VAERS Program.
Books and other publications:
- Free HPV reminder magnets (for immunization clinics located in Seattle only)
- Immunization Resources for You and Your Patients, CDC
- Plain Talk about Childhood Immunizations, frequently asked questions about immunizations; available in English, Russian and Spanish.
- Books, periodicals and other publications, IAC
Newsletters and other publications:
- The Communicable Disease Epidemiology & Immunization Quarterly, PHSKC
- The Double Helix, National Foundation for Infectious Diseases
- IAC Express, Needle Tips, and Vaccinate Adults!, IAC
- Immunization Works, CDC
- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, CDC
- Vaccine Update, Vaccine Education Center, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
Public health agencies:
- Public Health – Seattle & King County
Vaccines for Children Program: firstname.lastname@example.org
Immunization Assessment & Promotion: email@example.com
- Washington State Department of Health
Related immunization sites
- ACIP vaccination recommendations (CDC)
- American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
- Ask the Experts (Immunization Action Coalition)
- The Communicable Disease Epidemiology & Immunization Quarterly (PHSKC)
- Comprehensive resource guide for immunization providers (PHSKC)
- Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (The Pink Book, CDC)
- Flu vaccination (CDC)
- Vaccine package inserts
- Safety and adverse events (CDC)
- Travelers' health (CDC)
- Vaccine Information Statements (VIS)
- Washington Department of Health (DOH) Immunization Program
3.5" square HPV vaccine reminder magnets available free of charge for King County clinics that administer HPV vaccine.
Tools for School-Based Health Center staff and students to develop an HPV Vaccine Campaign in their schools.
Link/share our site at www.kingcounty.gov/immproviders